For a complete Sanskrit Glossary, this is a good one in PDF form. I only use a few Sanskrit words repeatedly in my posts, so here is a broad definition of each of them:

Jiva = the apparent person

Maya = the apparent world

Ishvara = the creator

Sattva = a clear, peaceful energy

Moksha = enlightenment

Vasanas = habits, conditioning

Satya = that which is real

Mithya = that which is only apparently real

Nama Rupa = name and form

These are very broad definitions and do not convey the subtlety of the Sanskrit, nor the more complex meanings unfolded in the Vedanta teaching. But they are close enough to give you the general idea.